Some numbers: L ergs/second grams.
(a) If the Sun was made completely of coal, how much energy could be extracted via the burning of the Sun?
6 x 10**12 ergs/gram x 2 x 10**33 grams = 12 x 10**45 ergs
(b) How long would the Sun shine at 1L if it was coal powered? Why can this hypothesis be ruled out?
12 x 10**45 ergs / 4 x 10**33 ergs/second = 3 x 10**12 seconds -- much less than the age of the solar system.
_xx_ Gravity balanced by thermal pressure
____ electrical attraction forces between the electrons and protons
____ Nuclear fusion balanced against gas pressure
____ none of the above
____ Mass converted into gamma rays during gravitational contraction
____ Helium converted into hydrogen during nuclear fusion
____ The decay of radioactive heavy elements like Uranium
_xx_ Mass converted into energy during nuclear fusion reactions
_xx_ It loses mass every second in producing the solar luminosity
_xx_ It has a larger helium content now than it did 4.5 billion years ago when it formed
_xx_ It is continuously ``evaporating'' charged particles into the Solar System
_xx_ It will eventually become a Red Giant
E = mc**2 = 0.048x10**-5 x (3x10**10)**2
Note that the mass indicated above is released for every gram of hydrogen fused to helium.
_T__ it will be more luminous than it is now
_T__ it will have a higher He content than it has now
_F__ it will have a higher mass than it has now
_T__ it will have a lower surface temperature than it has now
2 x (2x10**33) ergs/sec
2/10 times the lifetime of the Sun
____ The temperature of the cloud must be high enough to counteract gravity
_xx_ The cloud must be shielded from the interstellar radiation field from stars (dust can provide this shield)
_xx_ The temperature of the cloud core must reach K
____ The cloud core must be in hydrostatic equilibrium