Last updated: 08 February 2014
I joined the staff of Lick Observatory (now the University of California Observatories, or UCO) in April 1976. I retired from my position as Research Astronomer in 2012 and now provide volunteer technical support for various Observatory projects. I also serve on the Lick Observatory Council, which is the governing board for the Friends of Lick Observatory.
Prior to retiring, my primary emphasis was directing the development computer software in support of control and data acquisition systems for the telescopes and instruments at Lick Observatory, as well as for several of the instruments at the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii. During the past 20+ years, I directed the software development effort for the control and data acquisition systems for three optical instruments on the Keck Telescopes that were designed and built at UCO: HIRES (commissioned in 1993), ESI (commissioned in 1999), and DEIMOS (commissioned in 2002). I also directed the software effort for the upgrade of the detector system in the HIRES Spectrograph, from a single Tektronix 2K x 2K 24-micron pixel CCD to a 3 x 1 mosaic of MIT/LL 2K x 4K 15-micron pixel CCDs; that new detector system was commissioned in August 2004. More recently I developed software and helped to characterize the CCD detectors for an upgrade to the detector system of the red side of the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (LRIS) at Keck Observatory; that upgrade was completed in 2009. I also developed software for and helped to characterize the performance of the Automated Planet Finder (APF) spectrometer and telescope at Lick Observatory, which became fully operational in 2013.
Between 2008 and 2012, I coordinated efforts to install a high speed microwave link to the Lick Observatory facilities on Mt. Hamilton; that link provides greatly increased network bandwidth between Lick Observatory and the Internet. As an initial part of that effort, in November 2010 I oversaw the installation of a consumer-grade 5.3 GHz microwave link that operates in the unlicensed UNII-2 band and provides a bidirectional throughput of 35 Mbps. The final part of that effort was installation of a carrier-grade microwave link that operates in the licensed 11 GHz band and provides a bidirectional throughput of up to 200 Mbps.
I also coordinated efforts to expand the capability to remotely operate Keck instruments from remote sites in the U.S. and Australia. On March 2, 2011, I delivered an invited talk on this subject at the Telescopes from Afar conference in Waikoloa, Hawaii.
Between March 1998 and March 2003, I served as a member of the Applications Strategy Council of the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development .
REMOTE OBSERVING WITH THE KECK TELESCOPES FROM THE U.S. MAINLAND
This first part of my home page describes currents efforts underway to support remote observing with the Keck Telescopes from the U.S. mainland.
We have developed a remote observing facility on the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. This facility enables us to remotely conduct observations with many of the scientific instruments of the Keck 10-meter Telescopes . The two Keck telescopes are located on the summit of Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii.
On most nights, both telescopes are remotely operated from the W. M. Keck Observatory Headquarters, which is located in Waimea, approximately 32 kilometers from the Mauna Kea summit. The facility in Waimea is linked to the telescopes via a 1 Gbit/sec fiber optic cable, which connects the computer networks at the two sites. A videoconferencing system allows the astronomers in Waimea to maintain effective contact with the observing assistants on the summit, who are responsible for telescope control and safety.
The remote observing facility we have set up at UCSC operates as an extension of the facility in Waimea. It is now linked to the Keck Telescopes and the headquarters in Waimea via a 1 Gbit/sec network link that was established as part of the Internet2 effort. A multi-point videoconferencing system enables the astronomers on the mainland to collaborate both with Keck instrument scientists located at the Waimea headquarters and with the Keck observing assistants located at the Mauna Kea summit. Our goal is to provide nearly identical observing capabilities from UCSC as are currently available from Waimea.
During 2000 and 2001, the facility at UCSC was used extensively to conduct remote engineering tests of several Keck instruments, and to remotely commission new observing capabilities for two of these instruments: the High Resolution Spectrometer (HIRES) and the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) . The facility at UCSC become operational for science observing in September 2001, and was first used to conduct remote observations with both the ESI instrument on Keck-2 and the LRIS instrument on Keck-1.
During the week of September 11, 2001, this facility enabled astronomers from California to conduct their observations remotely from UCSC at a time when it was impossible to get airline flights to Hawaii due to the temporary shutdown of all domestic traffic.
During 2002, this facility played a pivotal role in the commissioning of the DEIMOS instrument on the Keck-2 Telescope. The commissioning of the DEIMOS active flexure compensation system was carried out entirely from UCSC via this facility.
During 2002 and 2003, all of the Keck optical instruments have been operated remotely on multiple occasions using the remote observing facility at UCSC. In many cases, large observing teams now share operational responsibilities, with some members of the observing team working from the Keck Headquarters in Waimea, while other team members collaborate with them remotely and in real time from the remote observing facility at UCSC. As of 2007, all Keck instruments (except for the Keck Interferometer), can be operated remotely from California.
Similar remote observing facilities are now operational at ten sites in California: UC Santa Cruz, UC San Diego, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), UC Los Angeles, UC Santa Barbara, UC Riverside, UC Irvine and UC Davis, as well as at Yale University in Connecticut and Swinburne University in Melbourne, Australia.
REMOTE OBSERVING WITH THE LICK TELESCOPES FROM UC CAMPUSES
Building on the experience developed with the Keck Observatory remote observing program, Lick Observatory began work in 2005 on a project to enable remote observing with the Nickel 1-meter Telescope at the Lick Observatory facility at Mount Hamilton. On nights when they are not otherwise being used to operate instruments on either of the two Keck Telescopes, the Keck remote observing rooms located at the various UC campuses can instead be used for remote observing with instruments on the Nickel 1-meter Telescope at Mount Hamilton.
Starting in August 2008, Lick Observatory's remote observing capability was extended to include two instruments on the Shane 3-meter Telescope: the Kast Spectrograph and the Prime Focus Camera (PFCAM). In 2009, this capability was extended to include the Hamilton Spectrograph.
Originally, a set of four leased T1 circuits provided the only network connection between the Mount Hamilton site and the UCO/Lick Observatory headquarters on the UC Santa Cruz campus. A portion of that bandwidth was used to operate the Mount Hamilton telephones, leaving only about 5.5 Mbits/sec for data communications. Starting in 2012, data communications were migrated to the high-speed microwave link described above.
MY PUBLIC PRESENTATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS ON REMOTE OBSERVING
My presentations on remote observing include the following: Keck 2006 Science Meeting held at UC Irvine in September 2006 and at the SPIE Astronomy Symposium held at Orlando, Florida in May 2006. I also made presentations on remote observing at the Keck 2005 Science Meeting held at Caltech in September 2005 and at the SPIE Astronomy Symposium held in Glasgow, Scotland in June 2004.
In August 2002, I chaired a conference on Advanced Global Communication Technologies for Astronomy as part of SPIE's symposium on Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation that was held in Waikoloa, Hawaii. Remote observing was one of the topics for that conference. I also presented at that conference a paper about Keck remote observing facilities.
On May 6, 2002, I made a brief presentation at the remote instrumentation discussion of the Internet-2 Spring 2002 member meeting. The slides for that presentation, in PowerPoint format, can be found here.
In October 2001, I presented a poster paper on Keck remote observing at the Keck 2001 Science Meeting at Caltech.
On April 4, 2001, at the Science, Culture, and Education over Internet2 Networks meeting held in Chile, I presented a virtual talk about our Keck Telescope remote observing initiatives. (The Power Point slides from this presentation are available as a Power Point file. However, I did not travel to Chile to attend this meeting in person. Rather, I gave my presentation from our Keck Telescope Remote Observing Facility located on the UC Santa Cruz campus. My interactive talk was presented live to the audiences in Chile via an H.323 multi-point videoconference carried over the Internet-2 networks in Chile and the United States. (The H.323 multi-point controller was located in Chile.) Simultaneous translation into Spanish was provided for the participants in Chile, which included audiences at several Chilean universities. The main audience was located at Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria in Valparaiso. The meeting was also broadcast simultaneously to the videoconference rooms of seven of the nine universities of the REUNA Consortium that are part of Universidad Virtual (U. Austral de Chile, U. de Atacama, U. de Concepción, U. de La Serena, U. del Bío Bío, U. Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación and U. Tecnológica Metropolitana). My presentation also included live participation from astronomers Steven Vogt, Geoff Marcy, and Paul Butler. These three astronomers were at the Keck Observatory Headquarters in Waimea, Hawaii, and were actively engaged in observations aimed at finding extra-solar planets and planetary systems.
At the end of January 2001, at the APAN/TransPAC/NLANR/Internet2 Techs Workshop held at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu, I gave a presentation on our Keck remote observing facility. I also gave a similar presentation at the Campus Focused Workshop on Advanced Networks held at the University of California San Diego in December 2000.
Related to these remote observing activities, in March 2000 I co-chaired a conference on Advanced Global Communications Technologies for Astronomy at SPIE's Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation Symposium in Munich. The proceeding from that conference are available from SPIE. I also presented a paper at that conference ("Remote observing with the Keck Telescopes from the U.S. mainland") which describes in detail our plans for the Keck remote observing facility at UCSC. This paper is available is either Adobe Acrobat PDF format or in PostScript format .
On March 23, 1998, I co-chaired (with Hilton Lewis of Keck Observatory ) a special "birds of a feather" (BOF) session on "Improving Internet Access to Mauna Kea Observatories". This session was held in conjunction with the SPIE conference on Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation in Kona, Hawaii from March 20-28. More information on this BOF session can be found on page 2 of the General Information for the conference. If you are interested the results of this session, please contact me via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org or via telephone at (831)-459-2262. The minutes of this session are now on-line.
On March 31, 1998, David Lassner (Director of Information Technology for the University of Hawaii, e-mail email@example.com) and I made a brief presentation to the NASA IRTF/Keck Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) during its meeting at the Keck Headquarters in Waimea, Hawaii. This presentation described the need for improved Internet access between Hawaii and the mainland and encouraged NASA to support the collective efforts of Keck, Lick, Caltech, JPL, and UH to improve this link.
Remote Observing with the Keck Telescopes , presented at the SPIE Telescope Control II symposium at San Diego on July 27, 1997, describes progress on developing software to allow remote observing with the Keck Telescopes, both from the Keck Headquarters in Waimea, Hawaii, and from the mainland. At that San Diego conference, a successful live demonstration of Keck remote observing was conducted from the San Diego Convention Center during the early morning hours of July 28. Since this paper and demonstration were presented, further progress has been achieved. In October 1997, we successfully demonstrated software which supports simultaneous, coordinated remote observing from multiple sites. Additional description of our Keck remote observing work can be found in the Future Work section of the paper Remote observing with the Keck Telescope using the ACTS satellite (Final Report) .
A more general article on Keck remote observing ("Through the Far Looking Glass: Collaborative Remote Observing with the Keck Telescope") , appeared in the May/June '98 issue (Volume V.3, pgs. 32-39) of ACM Interactions magazine
With regard to remote observing at other observatories, I suggest you refer to "Remote Observing at the ESO NTT and CAT telescopes" by Ziljstra, Wallander, Kaper, and Rodriguez, which appeared in the November 1997 issue of the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. That paper provides an excellent description of ESO's remote observing facility, which provides for remote operation of telescopes located in Chile from a control room in Germany.
UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII High Performance Internet Connection Proposal to NSF
In July 1998, the University of Hawaii submitted to NSF a High Performance Internet Connection grant proposal that would provide DS3 (45 Mbps) connectivity from Oahu to the mainland Internet2 backbone via an existing DREN circuit. This proposal also included upgrades to the various Hawaiian networks operated by UH, and would increase bandwidth between Mauna Kea and Oahu from 1.5 Mbps to 6.0 Mbps. This proposal was approved by the NSF in late February 1999. The upgraded link between Oahu and the mainland became operational in early May 1999, and the upgraded circuits between Oahu and Mauna Kea became operational in May 2000.
This improved connectivity was essential for our remote opeation of the Keck Telescopes from California. A copy of the UH NSF proposal and related materials are now available on-line.
In late-March 1999, the NSF also approved a proposal by the Gemini Telescope consortium to upgrade the Hawaii to Oahu link from the 6.0 Mbps (as proposed in the UH HPC proposal) to 45.0 Mbps. These two NSF proposals were in fact implemented in parallel, and as of May 2000 have provided a 45 Mbps pathway from the mainland to Mauna Kea. Peering between this path and the various mainland high-performance networks occurs at the Next Generation Internet Exchange point NGIX-West located at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California.
Since then, the link from Oahu to the mainland was upgraded first to OC-3 (155.52 Mbits/sec), and then to even higher speeds. In late 2007 a 1 Gbit/sec link became operational from Mauna Kea all the way back to the U.S. mainland.
OTHER RESEARCH INTERESTS
My research interests also include encoders and related systems for accurately measuring the position of telescopes and the domes that contain them. I am the principal inventor on 3 U.S. Patents involving systems for measuring the incremental and absolute positions of moving elements:
U.S. Patent No. 4,914,437
U.S. Patent No. 4,901,073
U.S. Patent No. 4,736,187
Some of the following papers are available both in Adobe PDF or PostScript formats. In some cases, the engineering drawings did not translate correctly when converting these documents from PostScript to PDF format. In such cases, please reference the original PostScript format of the document in order to properly view all of the drawings and diagrams.
"Applications of Microprocessors in Optical Astronomy", R. Kibrick, T. Ricketts, L. Robinson, Proc. SPIE 172, p. 403, 1979. Abstract
"Improving Drive Performance with Microprocessors", Robert Kibrick, Microcomputers in Astronomy II, eds. R. Genet and K. Genet, Fairborn Observatory, Chapter 8, 1984. Abstract
"A hybrid incremental/absolute position encoder for measuring the position of telescope domes", Robert Kibrick, Calvin R. Delaney, Jack Osborne, Proc. SPIE 628, p. 434-442, 1986. Abstact PDF-format scanned image of each page
"The Lick Observatory TV Autoguider", R. Kibrick and L. Robinson, Pub. of the A.S.P., Vol 99, p. 1014-1021, September 1987. Abstract
"Methods for measuring and reducing slippage of friction rollers employed in off-axis couplings of position encoders to telescopes", Robert Kibrick and Steve Allen, Proc. SPIE 1236, p. 777-789, 1990, Abstract PDF-format PostScript
"CCD Data Acquisition Systems at Lick and Keck Observatories", R. I. Kibrick, R. J. Stover, and A. R. Conrad, Astron. Soc. Pacific Conf. Series, Vol. 52, p.277-288, 1993 (invited paper). Abstract
"HIRES: the high-resolution echelle spectrometer on the Keck 10-m Telescope", Steven S. Vogt, et al., Proc. SPIE 2198, p. 362-375, June 1994, Abstract
"Two spectrograph control displays for the W. M. Keck Telescope", Albert Conrad, Robert I. Kibrick, John Cromer, Proc. SPIE 2198, p. 1151-1157, June 1994, Abstract
"An evaluation of precision tilt-sensors for measuring telescope position", Robert Kibrick, Lloyd Robinson, and Dave Cowley, Proc. SPIE 2479, p. 341-352, June 1995, Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"User Interface and Control Software for the HIRES Image Rotator on Keck-1", Robert Kibrick, Al Conrad, John Gathright, and Dean Tucker, Pro. SPIE 3112, p. 187-198, September 1997, Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"Tests of incremental rotary encoders", Lloyd B. Robinson, Robert I. Kibrick, David J. Cowley, Jack Osborne, Proc SPIE 3112, p. 42-49, September 1997, Abstract
"Remote Observing with the Keck Telescopes", Al Conrad, John Gathright, and Robert Kibrick, Proc. SPIE 3112, p. 99-110, September 1997, Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"Tests of a precision tiltmeter system for measuring telescope position", Robert Kibrick, Lloyd Robinson, Vernon Wallace, and Dave Cowley, Proc. SPIE 3351, p. 342-353, May 1998, Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"Through the far looking glass: collaborative remote observing with the W.M. Keck Observatory", Robert Kibrick, Al Conrad, Andrew Perala, Interactions, Vol. 5, Issue 3, p. 32-39, ACM Press, New York, May/June 1998, Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"An upper limit on the reflected light from the planet orbiting the star Tau Bootis", David Charbonneau, Robert W. Noyes, Sylvain G. Korzennik, Peter Nisenson, and Saurabh Jha, Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Steven S. Vogt and Robert I. Kibrick, University of California Santa Cruz, Astrophysical Journal Letters, 1999 July 12 Abstract PDF-format
"Active Flexure Compensation Software for the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager on Keck-II", Robert Kibrick, Joseph Miller, Jerry Nelson, Matthew Radovan, Andrew Sheinis, and Brian Sutin", Proc. SPIE 4009, p. 262-273, June 2000 Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"Remote observing with the Keck Telescopes from the U.S. mainland", Robert Kibrick, Steve Allen, Al Conrad, Proc. SPIE 4011, p. 104-116, June 2000, Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"ESI, a New Keck Observatory Echellette Spectrograph and Imager", A. I. Sheinis, M. Bolte, H. W. Epps, R. I. Kibrick, J. S. Miller, M. V. Radovan, B. C. Bigelow, B. M. Sutin, Pub. Astron. Soc. of the Pacific, Vol. 114, Issue 798, p. 851-865, August 2002. Abstract
"DEIMOS: A Powerful New Spectrograph at Keck II", A. C. Phillips, S. Faber, R. Kibrick, V. Wallace, et al., American Astronomical Society, 201st AAS Meeting, #137.02; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 34., p. 1320, December 2002. Abstract
"Remote observing with the Keck Telescopes from multiple sites in California", Robert Kibrick, Brian Hayes, Steve Allen, and Al Conrad, Proc. SPIE 4845, p. 80-93, November 2002, Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"DEIMOS Rotation Control System Software", William T. Deich, Robert I. Kibrick, Sandra M. Faber, De A. Clarke, Vernon Wallace, Proc. SPIE 4848, p. 463-473, December 2002, Abstract PostScript-format
"Do bigger telescopes need bigger software", Hilton Lewis, Al Conrad, and Bob Kibrick, Proc. SPIE 4848, p. 167-174, December 2002, Abstract PDF-format
"Managing DEIMOS removable elements and instrument configuration", D. A. Clarke, S. L. Allen, A. C. Phillips, R. I. Kibrick, V. Wallace, and J. P. Lewis", Proc. SPIE 4848, p. 346-358, December 2002, Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"The DEIMOS spectrograph for the Keck II telescope: integration and testing", S. M. Faber, A. C. Phillips, R. I. Kibrick, et al., Proc. SPIE 4841, p. 1657-1669, March 2003, Abstract PostScript-format
"The CCD imaging systems for DEIMOS", Chris Wright, Robert Kibrick, Barry Alcott, D. K. Gilmore, Terry Pfister, Dave Cowley, Proc. SPIE Vol. 4841, p. 214-229, March 2003, Abstract PDF-format
"A comparison of open versus closed loop flexure compensations for two Keck optical imaging spectrographs: ESI and DEIMOS", Robert Kibrick, S. M. Faber, Andrew C. Phillips, Molly McVeigh, Dave Cowley, Matt Radovan, Kirk Gilmore, Chris Wright, Dean Tucker, De Clarke, and Steve Allen", Proc. SPIE 4841, p. 1385-1398, March 2003, Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"Representations of DEIMOS Data Structures in FITS", S. L. Allen, D. A. Clarke, R. I. Kibrick, Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XII, ASP Conference Series, Vol. 295, p. 295, 2003. Abstract
"Remote Observing on the Keck Telescopes", P. L. Shopbell, R. I. Kibrick, S. L. Allen, B. Hayes, Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XII, ASP Conference Series, Vol. 295, p. 170, 2003. Abstract
"The DEIMOS flexure compensation system: overview and operational results", R. I. Kibrick, S. L. Allen, D. A. Clarke, S. M. Faber, A. C. Phillips, G. D. Wirth, Proc. SPIE Vol. 5492, p. 799-810, September 2004 Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"Optimization of SDSU-2 CCD controller hardware and software for CCD mosaics", R. I. Kibrick, C. Wright, S. L. Allen, D. A. Clarke, Proc. SPIE Vol. 5496, p. 178-189, September 2004 Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"Optimizing the use of X and VNC protocols for support of remote observing", R. I. Kibrick, S. L. Allen, A. R. Conrad, T. Stickel, G. D. Wirth, Proc. SPIE Vol. 5496, p. 323-334, September 2004 Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"Optimizing interactive performance for long-distance remote observing", R. I. Kibrick, S. L. Allen, A. R. Conrad, G. D. Wirth, Proc. SPIE Vol. 6274, June 2006 Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"A comparison of exposure meter systems for three exoplanet-hunting spectrometers: Hamilton, HIRES and APF", R. I. Kibrick, D. A. Clarke, W.T. Deich, D. Tucker, Proc. SPIE Vol. 6274, June 2006 Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"Modern computer control for Lick Observatory telescopes", J. Gates, W. T. S. Deich, A. Misch, R. I. Kibrick, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7019, July 2008 Abstract
"Remote observing with the Nickel Telescope at Lick Observatory", B. Grigsby, K. Chloros, J. Gates, W. T. S. Deich, E. Gates, R. Kibrick, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7016, July 2008 Abstract
"Operating a wide-area remote observing system for the W. M. Keck Observatory", G. D. Wirth, R. I. Kibrick, R. W. Goodrich, J. E. Lyke, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7016, July 2008 Abstract
"Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data and implications for LGS AO wavefront sensing", Sandrine J. Thomas, Donald Gavel, Sean Adkins, Bob Kibrick, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7015, July 2008 Abstract
"Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data from Lick Observatory", Sandrine J. Thomas, Donald Gavel, and Robert Kibrick, Applied Optics, Vol. 49, Issue 3, pp. 394-402, January 2010 Abstract
"A shared approach to supporting remote observing for multiple observatories", Robert I. Kibrick, Gregory D. Wirth, Elinor L. Gates, Bryant J. Grigsby, William T. S. Deich, Kyle Lanclos, and Steven L. Allen", Proc. SPIE Vol. 7737, July 2010 Abstract PDF-format PostScript-format
"The low-resolution imaging spectrograph red channel CCD upgrade: fully-depleted, high-resistivity CCDs for Keck", C. Rockosi, R. Stover, R. Kibrick, C. Lockwood, M. Peck, D. Cowley, M. Bolte, S. Adkins, B. Alcott, S. L. Allen, B. Brown, G. Cabak, W. Deich, D. Hilyard, M. Kassis, K. Lanclos, J. Lewis, T. Pfister, A. Phillips, L. Robinson, M. Saylor, M. Thompson, J. Ward, M. Wei, and C. Wright, Proc. SPIE 7735, July 2010, Abstract
"Realizing software longevity over a system's lifetime", Kyle Lanclos, William T. S. Deich, Robert I. Kibrick, Steven L. Allen, John Gates, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7740, July 2010, Abstract
"World coordinate system keywords for FITS file from Lick Observatory", Steven L. Allen, John Gates, Robert I, Kibrick, Proc. SPIE Vol 7740, July 2010 Abstract
"More bang for the buck: Lessons learned from remote observing at the W. M. Keck Observatory", Gregory D. Wirth, Robert I. Kibrick, James E. Lyke, Jeff A. Mader, Robert W. Goodrich, Proc. of Telescopes from Afar Conference, March 2011, Abstract Presentation Paper
"Operating a wide-area high-availability collaborative remote observing system for classically-scheduled observations", Robert I. Kibrick, Gregory D. Wirth, Steven L. Allen, William T. S. Deich, Robert W. Goodrich, James E. Lyke, Proc. of Telescopes from Afar Conference, March 2011, Abstract Presentation Paper
"APF - The Lick Observatory Automated Planet Finder", Steven S. Vogt, Matthew Radovan, Robert Kibrick, R. Paul Butler, et al., Pub. of the A.S.P., Vol. 126, p. 359-379, April 2014, Abstract
"A Four-Planet System Orbiting the K0V Star HD 141399", Steven S. Vogt, R. Paul Butler, Eugenio J. Rivera, Robert Kibrick, et al., ApJ 787 97, June 2014, Abstract
RESEARCH INTERESTS NOT RELATED TO ASTRONOMY
Over the past few years, during my time away from work at UCO/Lick Observatory, I have been actively engaged in efforts to call public attention to various problems and issues related to the use of electronic voting machines in the conduct of our elections.
Between October 2003 and December 2008, I was a volunteer with the non-partisan Verified Voting Foundation and VerifiedVoting.org, serving as their legislative analyst. I worked with state and federal legislative staff to develop and promote legislation to require that all voting systems provide an accessible voter-verified paper record.
I was also the co-organizer of the Forum on Electronic Voting. That forum was held on the UC Santa Cruz campus on October 26, 2003.
I was also a member of the Citizens Advisory Committee to the Santa Cruz County Elections Department and have served as both a polling place clerk and precint inspector in several statewide and federal elections.
I also have an interest in transportation planning and public transit systems. While an undergraduate engineering student at UCLA, I developed the first computerized carpooling system for that campus; that system became operational in 1972. Between December 2003 and August 2005, I was a member of the Transportation Advisory Committee for UC Santa Cruz.